Tuesday, 8 October 2013

Farewell Big Bang? Scientists have a new theory about creation of Universe .

 Adio Big Bang? Oamenii de ştiinţă au o nouă teorie extraordinară despre cum a apărut Universul

It might be time to say "goodbye" Big Bang Theory. A team of cosmologists speculate that the universe was formed from debris ejected when a four-dimensional star collapsed into a black hole. This new scenario postulated by researchers would explain why the cosmos seems to be so uniform in all directions.

 Standard Big Bang model states that the Universe exploded from an infinitely dense singularity known. However, no one knows what would have caused this explosion: the known laws of physics can not tell us what happened in that time."From the point of view of current knowledge of physics, they fly and dragons singularity" comments Niayesh Afshordi, an astrophysicist at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Canada.

The current model is difficult to explain such a violent Big Bang managed to leave behind a universe that is almost completely uniform temperature, because there seems to have been long enough to "cosmic birth" to reach the point the balance of the temperature.

For most cosmologists, the most plausible explanation for this uniformity would be that after the beginning of time, an unknown form of energy made ​​the universe young to "swell" at a speed greater than the speed of light. In this way, a small piece about the same temperature would be stretched, making vast cosmos we see today. However, Ashford points out that "Big Bang was so chaotic that it is not clear where they could be found a small piece and allowing the onset of homogeneous inflation process."

 In a new study published on arXiv, Ashford and his colleagues are studying a proposal made in 2000 by a team where he was and Gia Dvali, a physicist working today at Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich, Germany. In the 2000 proposal, our Universe three-dimensional (3D) is a membrane that floats through a "bulk universe" which has four spatial dimensions.

Researchers led by Ashford realized that if the universe would contain its own star bulk 4D (four-dimensional), some could collapse, forming 4D black holes as massive stars in our Universe: exploding as supernovae, hurling force the outer layers and inner layers colapsând into a black hole.

 In our universe, a black hole is bounded by a spherical surface called the "event horizon". If ordinary three-dimensional space requires a two-dimensional object (a surface) to create a "border" into the black hole, the "universe bulk" event horizon of a black hole 4D as a 3D object - a form that hipersferă called. When researchers led by Ashford death of a star shaped 4D, they found that the ejected material would form a membrane that surrounds the event horizon 3D 3D and extends slowly.

The authors postulate that the 3D universe in which we live could be just such a membrane - and that we detect membrane development as cosmic expansion. "Astronomers have measured the expansion and extrapolated from it that the universe began with a Big Bang - but that's just a mirage," said Afshordi.

 Model devised by Afshordi naturally explains the uniformity of our universe . Since the bulk 4D universe could have been infinite time period would have been enough time different parts of the universe 4D to achieve a balance , which is inherited from our 3D universe .
Afshordi 's model has some problems , though. Earlier this year, the Planck space observatory has released data that cartographers small temperature fluctuations in the cosmic background radiation - radiation ancient prints bearing the first moments of the universe. Fluctuations confirmed classical Big Bang model predictions of inflation theory , but Afshordi proposed model deviates from the Planck observations by about 4% . Hoping to resolve discrepancies , Afshordi states that are working on refining the model.
Despite this mismatch , Dvali praise ingenious way in which researchers were able to quit Big Bang model . " Singularity is the fundamental problem of cosmology , and these researchers rewrite history so that there is no singularity ," says physicist . Although Planck observatory results ' show that inflation theory is correct " , they do not provide an answer to the question " how inflation took place , "says Dvali . This study may help to demonstrate that inflation was activated by the movement of the universe through another reality with more dimensions , Dvali concludes .


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