Friday, 7 June 2013

Mars, the first "stop" on the way to the future


 Marte, prima „staţie” în drumul spre viitor
 
The sky was a challenge for humans since the early stages of our civilization. The desire to reach the vault of the world is reflected in countless myths from all cultures of the world, the flight of Icarus at the Tower of Babel, and the ability to travel by air was considered a divine attribute in all the world religions.
Over time, the power of flight was released the fantastic features and the human plane was brought brilliant minds such as Roger Bacon and Leonardo da Vinci, who drew up the first plans of tools to enable man to fly. With the Montgolfier brothers balloon successfully launched in 1783, mankind entered was really flying. This culminated in space achievements of the twentieth century, when man first landed in space and on Earth's natural satellite, the Moon.
Next target space programs is the Mars exploration. This lens is not just a fad, but a first step towards colonizing other planets, mission considered essential for the survival of human civilization.
The famous physicist Stephen Hawking warned in 2010 that the human species is likely to disappear if we fail colonize other planets. "There have been instances in the history of mankind, and the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1963, when our survival as a species was highly uncertain.'s Very likely that the frequency of these situations would arise in future. But I'm optimistic. If we manage to avoid disaster next two centuries, our species should be safe as we spread into space. Our only chance of long term survival in space is expanding, "said the scientist.
Among the potential causes that could cause the elimination of the human species include the impact of an asteroid, global warming accelerated melting of permafrost caused by an eruption of a super volcano (such as in Yellowstone), a pandemic or nuclear war. Except for the last, all these events have happened in the history of this planet and it will happen, the only uncertainty is when it will take place.
So to Mars!When there will be a mission to Mars?

A human mission to Mars has been proposed since the middle of last century, and in time the idea has ceased to be just a fanciful Proposal, the major space Powers starting to make cry and set concrete targets for Achieving this goal.
In 2010, U.S. President Barack Obama outlined His vision on this issue, Announcing That the U.S. intends to send a human mission to orbit Mars and return to Earth by 2030 Successfully, FOLLOWED by the Mission That Will people walk on Martian soil. "I intend to see for myself an American on Mars," said Obama, who was 48 at the time the speech.
NASA examines Several Ways to Achieve this goal, one of Which was the cargo launch a mission to Mars in 2035 to be FOLLOWED by a human mission in 2037.
What does a trip to Mars in Psychological terms?


The first step in selecting an astronaut to withstand pressures imposed by a mental journey to Mars is the psychological test. To be recognized as a suitable candidate for long-term space mission, the astronaut must demonstrate that it can withstand countless repetitive stress factors without fail.
Japanese Space Agency uses isolation rooms to test for the post of astronaut candidates. One of the tests to which they are subject involving famous Japanese origami art in which a sheet of paper is folded into different shapes. Because traditional Japanese art requires patience and attention, Japanese psychologists have devised a test for those who want to be astronauts: they must produce 1,000 origami paper cranes from.
After they finish the mission, cranes are considered carefully. Are the 10 cranes designed with more care than the last 10? A worrying sign, explains psychologist Natsushiko Inoue: "deterioration accuracy shows that the astronaut is impatient under stress." Repetitive constitute 90% of the work they perform an astronaut on the International Space Station, and inability to maintain high quality for a long period is a huge black ball for those who want to become astronauts.
The journey to Mars involves all stressors typical of a regular job, and lack of sleep, anxiety, high volume work, plus a single factor: the inability to quit.
Besides this, boredom caused by lack of environmental changes can be an important risk factor for mental health of astronauts that start the journey to Mars. Once they lose visual contact with the Earth, astronauts will not be able to see anything, not even a star because of the sun glare.
To test the effect of such travel, the European Space Agency and the Russian Institute for Biomedical Problems experiment developed for medical and psychological effects of such adventures can be analyzed.
For journey to Mars will require the selection of astronauts brave and resourceful as great distance from Earth will enter a 20-minute delay in communication with the base. Thus, if an emergency situation, the space shuttle staff will have to find solutions without the assistance of those on Earth.
Lengthy travel 500 days will involve other problems. According to psychiatrist Nick Kanas space in the 6th week of a space mission astronauts are becoming more distant from their peers and mission planning. Usually anger towards colleagues is "poured out" on the ground colleagues. If the contact will be more difficult, psychologists warn that there may be conflicts between astronauts. In a similar Mars-500 experiment, conducted in 1999, two Russian astronauts have had a fight.
To reduce the possibility of conflict, NASA considered sending a couple in space. The U.S. space agency dropped the idea, because there is a risk that an astronaut to be in the situation of having to choose between spouse threatening and endangering the space mission.
Even so, the space agency will have to find a solution to the natural needs of intimacy that will occur during the 500 days of solitude space.
 What does a trip to Mars in physiologically?


A long-term space travel could have unexpected consequences not only on the human psyche, but also on the body astronauts undertake this journey.
It is well known that astronauts lose muscle and bone mass during space missions, due to the fact that not using enough muscles and bones in the absence of gravity. Usually recover lost muscle mass in a few weeks after returning to Earth, but bones need more recovery time ranging from 3 to 6 months. However, some studies suggest that the skeleton astronauts involved in long duration missions is not never returns to its original.
The body conserves resources, distributing them only between elements that are used. Therefore, athletes are forced to undertake physical activity every day to ensure that the muscles and bones are at full capacity. Studies show that people paraplegic lose between 33% and 50% of lower limb bone mass. Astronauts returning to Earth after space missions lasting six months a loss of bone mass by 15% -20%.
Scientists studying the potential of a mission to Mars Space fear that a trip that lasts about two years could have a devastating effect on skeletal astronaut. Thus, once we on Mars, they would be able to break your leg at the first step in an environment with gravity (even if gravity on Mars is a third of that of the Earth, namely 0.38g).
At this point, despite programs involving exercise conducted in space, there is a solution to bone loss. Experts estimate that NASA astronauts who will start the journey to Mars will be selected after a rigorous genetic tests that will identify the most suitable candidates for such an attempt. The pace of reduction in bone density depends in good measure genetic heritage of each and race also confers an advantage. Studies show that people of black race have a higher bone density than whites, and they in turn have higher bone density than those of Asian races.
A long trip in weightlessness raises another issue that must be taken into account by planners: astronaut suit. Because in the absence of gravity is no longer the backbone down to body weight, astronauts grow in height by about 3% after a week spent in space. If this increase is not provided by costume designers, it might become too small for the person who uses it.
Another danger, extremely important, is the radiation. Without the protection provided by the Earth's atmosphere, the astronauts of the space shuttle that will go to Mars will be hit by gamma rays and neutrons launch them towards the sun. James A. Pawelczyk member of the STS-90 mission on the space shuttle Columbia, remembers that "there was never darkness when I sat down, trying to sleep, radiation hitting my visual photoreceptor cells and saw bright sparks. Saying" Wow, colored one just passed. "
As the shuttle will depart the Earth from space radiation will become more powerful, requiring a shield to protect sănătatatea astronauts seriously. Russian cosmonauts on the Mir spacecraft used to sleep with his head near large lead batteries to protect the skull from cosmic radiation. Another good shield is provided by water, due to the fact it is rich in hydrogen. Also, human waste produced by astronauts could be a good shield because they are rich in hydrocarbons.
However, none of the anti-radiation shields designed so far is not sufficiently effective to protect people from the devastating effect they have on cells.
It is hoped that the remaining two decades later when NASA aims to launch a human mission to Mars, engineers will be able to develop a more effective shield or a method of propulsion than those of today, allowing reducing the time that astronauts would spend in space.
What does the future

Challenges that separate us from Mars are high and space missions not arouse the same emulation on the journey to the moon caused it to everyone.

For this mission, but our survival may depend as a species. Therefore, members argue that the wall separating NASA scientists citizens should be down and that each of us should be considered part of this effort, which should approach it with hope.

The theme of the foundation of hope speech by U.S. President Barack Obama when he announced the plan last year NASA mission to Mars: "In 50 years since the creation of NASA, our goal is not a destination that we want to achieve . goal we want to achieve now is the human ability to work and learn and operate and live safely beyond the Earth for extended periods of time using sustainable way and perhaps inexhaustible ".

If now the trip to Mars may seem like a bold dream, but unattainable, as the journey to the Moon by Jules Verne imagined was long considered only a matter of science fiction for generations over hundreds of years this could be the basis of new similar myths of Genesis ...


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